prostate cancer

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A review by Abraham et al. addressed major topics in the epidemiology of prostate cancer (114). Blacks in the USA have the highest mortality rates in the world for this cancer. They are followed by whites in Norway, Switzerland, and Sweden. The lowest mortality rates occur among Asians in Singapore, Japan, and Hong Kong. However, the incidence of prostate cancer has been rising in Japan, where major dietary changes have occurred in the last 30 y. Further, the incidence of the disease is positively correlated with that of other diet-related cancers and is much higher in Japanese immigrants to Hawaii. Studies on the relationships between prostate cancer and intake of fats and vitamin A and carotenoids are summarized in text and tables. Although evidence for an adverse effect is supported by limited animal data. For effects of β-carotene, other carotenoids, or fruits and vegetables, the data are equivocal. A protective effect of carotenoids is seen principally in the context of a low – fat diet; it is also possible the some fruits contain risk-enhancing factors. Reports of a link between cadmium and cancer risk pertain mostly to occupational exposure. In sufficient data are available on other dietary components.

Rates of prostate cancer are very low in third World countries in populations that maintain a traditional lifestyle, but they rise in urban populations where lifestyles are in transition (115). Information on risk factors for these populations is meager; neither smoking nor alcohol consumption seems to be involved. A case-control study among blacks in Soweto, South Africa, found that high consumption of fat, meat, or eggs increased risk, were as high consumption of fruits or vegetables was protective. Specific foods that afforded protection were carrots, cabbage, and spinach; dietary fiber was also protective. Employment in an occupation that permitted ready access to a Western diet increased risk. No associations were seen for anthropometry, education, social class, smoking, and drinking.

A case-control study in northern Italy identified high milk consumption as a significant risk factor for prostate cancer (116). This agrees with most previous reports. Surprisingly, however, no consistent associations were found for cheese or butter intake, other sources of animal fat, of total fat.

Looking To Save Money? Check Out These Great Coupon Tips!

Looking To Save Money? Check Out These Great Coupon Tips!

You can save a bit of money all the time with coupons. Don’t get fooled into thinking that little coupons can’t be an effective way to save money. The coupon tips contained in this article are effective and will effectively save you money on the grocery bill. Keep reading for serious savings.

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Coupons can be found a variety of places. The Sunday paper usually contains many coupons in them. You can find them in flyers and all kinds of magazines. You can even find lots of online sites that will let you customize your coupon preferences.

Don’t just use your coupons as soon as you obtain them.

Take advantage of competition and use the coupon strategies to your advantage. Coupons offered at one store are probably usable at another competing store. This means that you save money. You could actually neutralize your coupon savings when you have to buy gas.

Sign up for an online forum that shares information on deals. There are many sites that post coupon deals to help you save money.

If you’re getting an item with a coupon and that item is going on sale soon, then you could save even more money by making use of coupon-clipping services for ordering numerous copies of the coupon. You can find such services online, and you will save money by not having to purchase several newspapers.

Take time to clip coupons. Schedule time when you can do some serious coupon clipping. Set aside a half hour per day to look over different ads and cut out coupons.

Do not spend too much time clipping coupons than it is worth. It can be time consuming to search clip and circulars the coupons. Take the time to figure out your savings per hour of work, so you know if the time you spend is worth how much you save.

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Try to accumulate coupons just for items you will utilize. This allows you from overspending on items that you do not need.Buying unnecessary items that you do not need is the big reason why many people stop couponing. This strategy will also assist with keeping your coupons neatly ordered and collected.

Don’t buy every product that you cut a coupon for it. A lot of people tend to spend too much even with coupons because they purchase whatever they have coupons for. If you will not use the product, you have lost money, even though it might look like a great deal.

There are sites available where you can buy or trade coupons. You could discover an excellent deal on coupons that will allow you free things. Paying a dollar for extras of this coupon can still get you a very deep discount at the checkout counter.

Be sure that you have the best deal.

Keep in mind that the coupons from the checkout can not be doubled.

To really get the most you can from coupons, stop living paycheck to paycheck. If you don’t have extra income, it may not be possible to make use of deals. You miss out on all the other wonderful opportunities to load up on paper and dry goods, although you can use coupons on your routine groceries to save money.

Make room in your home so you will buy with coupons. You don’t want to be held back by a messy pantry or overflowing kitchen cabinets if something has been deeply discounted! Keep your space organized so you can increase your savings by making larger purchases.

A great coupon idea is stockpile particular items you normally use while you have coupons for them. You may want to buy a lot, but when you calculate it, you will save more if you purchase items in quantity when they are on sale.

Consider starting up a small couponing group with your savings. If you have friends that love to collects coupons too, it makes trading for things you are more likely to use far easier.

Create a new email account and use it only for only newsletters. Newsletters produced by manufacturers typically provide coupons. If you use your normal email account, it can become quite cluttered. To keep your personal email account from getting bombarded, simply create a special email address just for those types of emails. Check in once a scan and week through the newsletters and see if any deals are present.

Ask your friends for things you may need. You can also trade off coupons that you don’t use for coupons that are valuable to you.You can do a coupon swap meet and share ideas. It’s also an excellent excuse for getting all your buddies together as well!

By being smart with your coupons, you can trim your monthly budget quite a bit. When you review the helpful hints presented then and here practice them, you can coupon your way into many savings.

Discount coupons, Deals And Postal mail-In Rebates For Today’s Consumer

Discount coupons, Deals And Postal mail-In Rebates For Today’s Consumer

Utilizing coupons can be very complicated before you obtain the hang than it. Some are afraid of them, neglecting to identify how easy they are the whole process of conserving a lot of money. Keep reading to find ways to make simpler and maximize financial savings.

Use several coupon codes upon an item when possible. Using several coupon codes allows you to purchase much more. This is a wonderful way to stock up on the things that you apply one of the most. If you at present keep 5 coupon codes to get a jelly which you use weekly, use several vouchers to inventory up.

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Coupon codes come in various kinds as you can find them in numerous types of options. The Weekend newspapers as a discount insert or two. You can get coupon codes in magazines and also in retailers. You can even go to websites to assist you select coupons to print.

Store at community stores that respect competitor’s coupons to help maximize your savings. Whenever you learn that retail store that permits you to use contender vouchers and increase vouchers, you may have really identified an incredible location to retail outlet.

You must not use a voucher correct when you get them.

The Web is frequently a wonderful strategy for finding discount coupons. You will find great discount coupons for just about anything on the web. You don’t even have to produce them and they’re all set.

Take all your discount coupons whenever you on the retail store even if you do not plan to use it.

Ensure that you know as soon as your discount coupons for expiration dates. Some coupons are only good for a week or perhaps a working day. Some are perfect for monthly or higher. Be sure that you examine weekly to determine if you now have expired coupon codes.This enables you to correctly use your coupon codes prior to they expire.

Spend some time to produce away from and clip and produce coupons. Schedule a time to your couponing if you can do some severe promotion cutting. Allocate at the very least thirty minutes per day to find and clipping vouchers.

Search the web for coupon codes on on the internet items by means of discount codes. Make use of a significant internet search engine to look for vouchers from the shop name”. Any recent deals the retailer happens to be running can have as regulations you should use at have a look at.

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You don’t must purchase something just as there is a discount readily available for it. Lots of people have a tendency to spend excessive dollars when they’re making use of their discount coupons mainly because they acquire every little thing they have coupons for. It will be a wonderful bargain, but if you do not utilize it, you will be in fact spending cash.

Make sure you are using the best promotion achievable.

Don’t be uncomfortable having a lots of vouchers when you’re looking at at the have a look at countertop. If you are effectively-equipped it shouldn’t get too much time anyways.

Usually do not depend exclusively on your paper to your discount coupons. There are discount coupons open to obtain discount coupons. There are several online sites who have vouchers.

Choose a package internet site which render it very easy to aggregate coupon codes while offering from a variety of retailers’ internet sites and advertising. This helps help save you time and effort to make finding coupon codes simple.

Write out a grocery store selection of household goods before you go on the internet for coupon codes. You will probably find coordinating coupons for your main intended buys on the spot, then worry about changing your programs depending on sales and discounts readily available.

Prior to checking out an online deal, it is best to seek out a promotion code.A great deal of areas offer discount codes that may help you can make use of to save money when you’re purchasing products. Use Yahoo and google or other of your respective favorite internet search engine to consider them. Use look for strings that come with the entire year and 30 days to enable you to locate discount coupons and gives.

Don’t pitch your older coupons because they have got expired. You could gladly find the shop is going to take expired vouchers.

As opposed to paying plenty of cash on papers, get leftover replicates going to be dumped on Monday early morning. Many places just throw the additional reports apart, and this signifies good coupon codes planning to waste. It really is really worth the additional effort to seize the extras and utilize the coupon codes.

So as you now understand how to use vouchers start preserving a lot of money. Don’t forget of coupon codes! Using the guidelines on this page will allow you to cut costs quickly. Begin saving now!

Crystal clear Out The Confusing Of Discount coupons With This Assistance

Crystal clear Out The Confusing Of Discount coupons With This Assistance

Using coupons might be a complicated to many individuals. Some think coupons are difficult to use, not knowing exactly how easy worthwhile can be. Read on for discount assistance that you can use coupon codes!

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Don’t buying one thing entirely because there had been a discount. It’s easy for anyone to spend more when shopping with coupon codes since they acquire products they don’t must have. Use only your vouchers for stuff you have been on your own list for starters.

Once you have a coupon directly into get a merchandise, first be sure that the bargain you are getting is a good one. Don’t just believe that your promotion will give you preserving probably the most price savings readily available.

Discount coupons are available several resources. The Saturday newspaper frequently includes several brochures with vouchers each week. You will discover them in brochures and a myriad of publications.You will find internet sites exactly where discount coupons and promotion requirements can be obtained.

Utilize your coupons once the greatest price savings. This may suggest that you need to help save the promotion for a couple days to work with on one more purchasing getaway.

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Leverage the supermarket competitors amid grocers.Vouchers supplied at a single store can often be used at yet another contesting store. This means that you cut costs and steer clear of planing a trip to numerous retailers. You could in fact neutralize your saving money do today to the gas fees by driving a vehicle in one spot to the next.

In case you have a voucher for an product that is going to continue purchase, consider utilizing a web-based service to buy multiple discount coupons for that object. You will find these kinds of services on the web, and you will probably reduce costs by not needing to get numerous papers.

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Pair your coupon codes along with your food store. This will help for the greatest method to rating large financial savings.Most coupons don’t expire to get a calendar month roughly, it is possible to keep on to your discount coupons for some time. Coupon codes which are put together with a particular selling cost may potentially help save you much money on the grocery store monthly bill.

Some stores twice and triple voucher incentives. Check with the local merchants to find out if they abide by this policy. Also you can ask men and women in your town for help.

You can find web sites readily available where one can buy coupons. You could even find a good deal that provide you cost-free items. Having to pay a buck for additional features of the product will get you a good deal at the checkout kitchen counter.

Get your products in bulk provided you can. Buy items you really need with coupon codes. Virtually all coupon codes have expiry day.The things you acquire will most likely have a much lengthier within your kitchen pantry compared to discount will be great for. Use duplicate coupon codes when you are able. You will reduce costs through the long-term.

Don’t be ashamed to use discount coupons when you’re at your store’s verify-out series. If you’re well prepared and coordinate it won’t take very long prior to being accomplished checking out.

Request family and friends to help you save vouchers from the newspapers and magazines. This enables you extra resources to gather coupons.

Will not rely on your newspapers for vouchers. Vouchers are available in many forms in today’s electronic era.There are actually an abundance of coupon solutions on the web.

Make a note of your list before you search on the internet to find coupons. When you can’t get all the discount coupons you want, change your purchasing escape to involve other shops or shop yet another time.

Tend not to avoid vouchers simply because you may not understand. Vouchers are your close friends! The advice you identified on this page will have you spending less in no time. Start saving right now!

Understand About Vouchers On This Page

Understand About Vouchers On This Page

Most are trying save cash on their buys nowadays. Vouchers have already been saving cash. The article under will show you the advantages of using coupon codes.

Try using coupons when you can find get one get one free product sales at your shop. You can get one item free then help save major around the other piece. You can find yourself spending below a quarter of retail industry.

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Be sure you use discount coupons are paired track of store income. This is actually the most effective discounted. A lot of the coupon codes you will realize are perfect for 90 days therefore, so save your coupons before the after that sale. Vouchers that are combined with store revenue can actually help save much cash on the grocery store expenses.

If you’re definitely eager for getting a good price, don’t worry “dumpster plunging.” You might just be surprised to find out just how many folks simply throw their coupons out with the garbage.

There are a huge amount of web sites that could get coupons. You could possibly even find a package that nets you cost-free issues. Spending a buck for additional items of this promotion may still help you get a very serious discounted in the checkout kitchen counter.

Remember that some coupons you get at take a look at can’t be more than doubled.

“Like” an enterprise on Facebook or myspace for further useful coupons or delivers. “Choice” a brand’s site will make you with entry to exclusive savings and coupons. The companies will provide specific price savings on Fb to their dedicated consumers, and you want to make certain that you will be one of these.

A valuable idea for couponers is to remember to keep vouchers where they are unable to easily be neglected.

Tend not to be dependent solely on classifieds. Coupon codes are available in several areas because of breakthroughs in technology. There are plenty of internet sites offering vouchers online.

Be sure that can be saved in your house. In case you have added coupons you can not use, make contact with family or friends participant and try to get some to them or arrange a swap for something they have got overbought.

Try to retail outlet at retailers offering double voucher days. Getting anything at no cost is obviously more enjoyable! You could also select very inexpensive.

Discover ways to adapt your grocery list around any money conserving coupon codes you money.This eventually ends up saving you help save lots of money.

Be smart together with the vouchers you use. Whilst getting issues totally free is always an arrangement, you don’t need to put money into stuff you don’t usually purchase. Have a check list of items you want before watching the vouchers. This can lessen your urge to pay on facts you don’t will need.

Take into account starting up a promotion exchange to improve your cost savings. When you have a friend that enjoys to records coupons also, you’ll be able to trade off stuff they might want for stuff that you may require.

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That you can now see, employing coupons is helpful to your financial well being. With any good fortune, at this point you fully grasp their value. Go ahead and take details right here and use it to your next buying trip that will help you conserve a lot of money. A great way to help save a ton of money on the following buying getaway is usually to cut and redeem some manufacturer’s coupons.

Discount Know-How That Everybody Can Make Use Of For A Few Additional Price savings

Discount Know-How That Everybody Can Make Use Of For A Few Additional Price savings

Everyone loves quite a lot and your luck will get far better once you find coupon codes to your favored goods. Use a variety of ways to find coupon codes nowadays, in newspapers inserts and flyers for the money-preserving vouchers.The next post delivers several guidelines provided to you right here will assist you in getting most from your cost savings making use of discount coupons.

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Use vouchers whenever you can each time you retail outlet. Utilizing much more coupon codes at once will allow you to acquire more. This is a great way to stock up on the products that you employ in most cases. When you are keeping 6 coupons for tomato sauce you know will probably be utilized through the full week, get 5 jars in a journey and utilize all those vouchers.

Utilize your vouchers once the items carry on purchase to improve your cost savings. This may imply hanging on to vouchers for a few days to make use of on an additional shopping trip.

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The Web can be a much better resource for coupon codes than the older-fashioned Weekend paper. You will find vouchers on the web for just about anything on-line.The best part is you can steer clear of hrs clipping these coupons merely produce and voila!

Set aside 1 day of each week to exclusively look for coupon codes. This helps points more effective.

Make certain you check your coupon codes usually do not last for a long time. There are many discount coupons on the market that end within 1 day. Some are good for thirty days. Make sure that you verify regular to see if you have expired coupon codes.This will likely help you to use all of your discount coupons just before they end.

You could opt to shop several merchants and save major instead of just going to one particular place at one time.

Should you be eager for vouchers, don’t fear “dumpster scuba diving.” You might just be surprised to learn how many coupons out with the garbage.

Only keep discount coupons for items that have items you use. This will likely prevent you from exceeding your budget on unwanted merchandise for the reason that you may not need to have.Buying unneeded items you do not want will be the good reasons many people end couponing. This strategy will also assist with trying to keep your vouchers much better arranged.

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Some merchants supply double and triple coupon ideals. Check around to determine which neighborhood supermarkets to ascertain if they abide by this insurance policy. You can also request people in distinct locations.

There are several sites where you can acquire coupon codes. You may have found an agreement on coupons that nets you cost-free goods. Spending a dollar for multiples of the piece will get you quite a lot in the have a look at counter-top.

Take into account that occasionally stores is not going to double coupons provided by the check out cannot be more than doubled.

You’ve just read through some great advice about employing vouchers to save money. When you let this report become your information, you’ll be well on your way to your more compact expenses when you are going shopping for groceries or eat at restaurants in a bistro. You can even save on traveling in the event you enjoy your credit cards proper.

Use These Ideas To Save Big With Coupon codes

Use These Ideas To Save Big With Coupon codes

You can find people almost everywhere today touting the benefits of couponing. They can make points seem easy, but it’s not without the right skill set. This information has information to help you join their rates.

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Try using coupon codes when there are acquire one purchase one cost-free sales on your retailer. You receive one item cost-free after which a good selling price on the other item.You could find that you shell out with regards to a 4th of their preliminary selling price.

The Net is actually a provider for vouchers. You can get vouchers online for almost anything on the internet.The good thing is the fact that you do not have to spend hrs of cutting! Just produce and voila!

Spend time clipping or publishing vouchers. Schedule time if you are absolutely intent on the effort. Put aside a half-hour every single day to think about advertisements and reduce coupons.

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You can internet some major cost savings at $ merchants to save lots of money over a couple of items. The vast majority of time a much lower price. These are usually have overstocked and delivered to “low finish” retailers to recoup production fees. Which means you can be utilized on the discounted price.

If you require vouchers, take advantage of the coupon codes which can be thrown in to the dumpster. You might just be stunned at how many folks throw away their discount coupons end up in the rubbish.

Possessing a promotion to have an item does not necessarily mean you need to use it. Many people overspend when they are utilizing their coupons. It will be a great deal, just make sure don’t use anything it’s a total waste of just about any cash.

Take into consideration creating volume goods. Make use of your coupon codes on goods if you use in most cases. The majority of the coupon codes offer an expiration day. The products you purchase will usually hold the longer shelf life. Use vouchers you might have them. You can expect to preserve a huge amount of cash in the end.

Usually do not count on merely the local newspaper to your local newspaper for discount coupons. Vouchers are available in many forms in today’s computerized grow older.There are actually a good amount of sites that provide printable discount coupons.

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Make an effort to only shop with a location which will double your coupon codes. This is wonderful for some more expensive items which don’t provide any high worth coupons.

A lot of shops will alter their insurance policies about coupon codes when there are way too many purchasers getting into on a single package, and that means a lot less savings throughout.

Try and go shopping at merchants offering increase the value of coupons. Acquiring goods free of charge is always a great deal!You are able to also provide the opportunity to try new services this way.

You will need some dedication if you plan to take full advantage of big price savings. Try and set-aside part of the day to help make place for some time or you might do it in the course of lunch or dinner. Function it in your current life schedule.

Vouchers are available almost everywhere, but are only worth the cost if you are using them effectively. Use everything you have discovered in this post to obtain started out on the road to savings.

Best Buy Coupon Code – How To Save A Lot Of Money Using Coupons

How To Save A Lot Of Money Using Best Buy Coupon Code
Coupons actually give you two benefits at the same time. The coupons can help save you a lot of money on essentials. Keep reading to find out how to save a ton with coupons.

Don’t just use coupons as soon as you get them.

Bring all of your coupons with you go to the stores even if you do not plan to use it.

Spend at least one day each week gathering coupons. This an efficient method for you.

Join one of those online forum about coupons and deals. There are many online deal forums which regularly post money saving coupons and promotions to save you money.

Spend real time finding valuable coupons. Schedule a time for your couponing if you can do some serious coupon clipping. Allot at least 30 minutes per day to finding and cut out coupons.

If you are eager and desperate in your coupon search, do not be scared to go “dumpster diving”. You will find that many people simply toss their coupons out with the garbage.

Some places will allow you to use double (or even triple) your coupons. Ask around to find out which local stores to see if they adhere to this policy. You can even ask others what type of experience they have had using coupons in different locations.

Don’t buy the product that you cut a coupon for. This causes people to actually overspend and end up with a pantry full of save money. It may be a great deal that is staring you in the face, but if you don’t use it, you’ve lost money.

Using coupons can help you save money in more ways than one. First, you can save money on essentials. The added bonus is using the money saved with those coupons to apply to entertainment that you probably have coupons for as well. Apply everything that you learned today to see what you can learn.

overstock Coupon code -SImple Steps To Help You Save Money By Using Coupons

Save Money By Using overstock Coupon code

Many people are struggling through these tough economic times. Although there is no magic fix for financial issues, you can still easily reach out and take some money back by using couponing methods to save. One method of those ways is by finding and using coupons. The piece that follows offers great information about the usefulness of coupons and how you can use them properly.

Never purchase an item simply because there is a great coupon for it. It’s simple for people to spend more when shopping with coupons because they end up buying items they don’t actually need. Just use coupons for products you had been really thinking about buying to begin with to avoid unnecessary money.

You should not have to use a coupon right when you get it.

Sign up for a online forum that lists deals.There are many sites that post coupon deals to help you save money.

You may be able to save a lot by visiting more than one store with the coupons you clip.

Some places will allow you to use double and triple coupons. Ask your local stores do this. You can even ask others what type of experience they have had using coupons in different locations.

Don’t buy the product because you happen have a coupon. A lot of people spend too much money when they’re using their coupons because they buy everything they have coupons for.It may be a great deal that is staring you in the face, but if you do not use it, you’ve lost money.

Coupons can be a huge money saver. By utilizing the information in this article, you can begin saving money. Finding and employing coupons is very easy. By just putting forth a little effort, you’ll be well equipped to save money and time getting what you need.

Ovarian cancer

Although many “ovarian cancer families” have been indentified since epidemiologists began to look for them and by far the greatest risk is for a woman from such a family who has a first-degree relative with this disease, dietary and other factors are also involved. Piver er al. reviewed the epidemiology and etiology of ovarian cancer (123). The highest incidence is in industrialized countries, with the notable exception of Japan. Moreover, Japanese women born in the USA have rates of ovarian cancer approaching those of animal fat has been associated with ovarian cancer, whereas there is no association with use of coffee, alcohol, or tobacco. One case-control study found yogurt and cottage cheese to be the only regularly used foods associated with increased risk. At the same time, cancer patients had a lesser ability to metabolize the galactose component of lactose (milk sugar.) In general, countries with the greatest per capita milk consumption and the largest percentage of women with impaired ability to metabolize galactose have the highest incidence of ovarian cancer. Together these observations imply that exposure of ovaries to galactose increases their risk of developing malignant tumors. When whole milk and low-fat or skim milk were considered separately, however, the increased risk from high milk consumption could apparently be attributed to the milk’s fat content. Another study found no difference between cancer patients and controls infrequency of consuming dairy foods or amount of lactose consumed (124). Eating carrots reduced risk; and after adjustment for body mass, smoking, and lactose consumption, regression analysis revealed a significant protective effect of β-carotene.

Use of oral contraceptives appears to be protective against ovarian cancer but may interact with dietary factors. Harlow et al. conducted a case-control  study of the influence of diet on the association between ovarian cancer risk and use f oral contraceptives (125). The association between oral contraceptive use and ovarian cancer was modified by various nutrients; protective effects were largely confined to women with greater than median consumption of calories, carbohydrates, protein, animal fat, or lactose. Among women who ingested ≤11 g/day of lactose, use of oral contraceptives for ≥3 months was associated with a nonsignificant increase in risk; were as for those who consumed >11g/day of lactose, use of oral contraceptives for ≥3months significantly decreased risk. Within this group the association was strongest for >4 years of oral contraceptive use and >2 years of use after age 30. While this study raises more questions than it answers, it does generate several testable hypo these concerning causation of ovarian cancer. These were discussed in a commentary by Mettlin (126). In response, Cramer and Harlow elaborated on their proposed model for pathogenesis if ovarian cancer (127). They also discussed the difficulties in discriminating lactose effects from animal fat effects in most previous studies, or the failure of investigators to address this problem at all (128). They emphasized the value of measuring blood activity of galactose-1 phosphate uridyl transferase (“trans ferase”), a enzyme in galactose metabolism. Cramer and Harlow found that the ratio of dietary lactose to transferase activity was the strongest variable associated with ovarian cancer risk.

Cancer of the uterine cervix

American Indian women in the Southwest have high rates of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer but low rates of cancer at other sites (119). A pilot case-control study in this population evaluated the relationship between cytological abnormalities and dietary intake of various micronutrients. Forty-two women with cervical dysplasia and 58 with normal cytology provided 24-h dietary recall information. Although no differences between case-subjects and controls were statistically significant, women whose intake of vitamin C, vitamin E or folacin was low were at higher risk for cervical dysplasia. Whereas many epidemiological investigations suggest a protective role for dietary vitamin A, β-carotene, or other carotenoids, a study in the  etiology of cervical dysplasia (120). Subjects were 257 women with cervical dysplasia and 705 population controls who were thought to be free of dysplasia but were not examined cytologically when they entered the study. Information on diet and other risk factors was obtained by postal questionnaire. There was no indication that β-carotene protects against development of cervical dysplasia. In fact, there was a slightly higher risk of dysplasia in women with the highest intake of β-carotene protects against development of cervical dysplasia. In fact, there was a slightly higher intake of β-carotene. Nor could a relationship be shown with dietary retinol. Fiber and vitamin C were weakly but nonsignificantly protective.

A case- control study at major cancer treatment centers in Costa Rica, Panama, Mexico City, and Bogota, Colombia investigated dietary (121) and serological (112) indicators of risk for invasive cervical cancer. After adjustment for confounding factors, women in the highest quartiles of fruit and fruit juice consumption were at slightly lower risk. Vegetables, foods of animal origin, folacin-rich food, complex carbohydrates, and legumes were not associate with risk. Based on nutrient indices, significant trends of decreasing risk were found for vitamin C, β-carotene, and other carotenoids. However, adjustment  for vitamin C intake attenuated the effect of  β-carotene. For cancer patients, serologic investigations were restricted to those with stage I and II disease, to minimize the effects of disease on serum markers. Case-patients and controls did not differ significantly in serum levels of retinal, cryptozanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, lutein, or α-tocopherol. The mean level of β-carotene was some what lower in cancer patients; that of γ- tocopherol might represent an alteration caused by the disease process, but no evidence for a disease effect was seen for the other markers. The general concordance between dietary and serum data suggests that β-carotene has a protective role in the etiology of cervical cancer and demonstrates the discriminatory indicators.